In an effort to bring the King of Barotseland to the table and facilitate the fusion of the Protectorate of Northern Rhodesia with the protectorate of Barotseland to form Zambia the colonial power through the colonial secretary Sir Duncan Sandys crafted an agreement which was sold to the Prime Minister of Northern Rhodesia and Sir Mwanawina Lewanika of Barotseland. This was during the last stages of the constitutional conference at Malborough House in London. It would appear few of the delegates at this conference claim to be aware of this side meeting, which was taking place simultaneously with the main conference.

Read more: The Barotseland Agreement of 18th May 1964

Zambia was particularly honoured this week by the visit to the country of a group of eminent persons calling themselves "Champions of an HIV-Free Generation" led by, His Excellency Mr. Festus Mogae, former President of Botswana. They brought a message to us. This is that there is no need to enact laws that criminalise homosexuality and sex workers. The group met our own President at State House. They were accompanied to State House by their Zambian member, His Excellency, Dr. Kenneth Kaunda, our first President. Following their deliberations with our current President, I am writing to congratulate President Banda for responding without hysterics to the comments made by the leader of the group regarding the rights of homosexuals in our communities in this part of the world.

Read more: Visit To Zambia of Champions of an HIV-Free Generation

Prepared for a Legal Reform and Judicial Capacity Building Workshop at the World Bank


The Low Income Countries under Stress Section of the World Bank must be congratulated for organising this one day Learning Seminar which brings together experts on various different aspects of state building around the world.

Almost all the low income countries under stress are to be found in the developing world. Most of these countries are in Africa. The task of bringing about development in these countries is not only the concern of the political leaders of those countries; it is also the concern of the Bretton Woods Institutions and the wider international community.

Since the creation of the United Nations Organisation following the aftermath of the Second World War in 1945, the world scene has changed vastly. From a membership of about 53 nations in 1945 the United Nations Organisation has now a membership of close to 193 countries. These member States of the United Nations are in different stages of political, economic and social development; some requiring massive development assistance from multilateral and bilateral donors and others slowly achieving the desired development.

Read more: State-Building: Policy and Practice in Fragile States